Gene expression prokaryotes vs eukaryotes: 7 major differences

This article will help you to understand the core concept of Gene expression prokaryotes vs eukaryotes with 7 major differences.
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This article will help you to understand the core concept of Gene expression prokaryotes vs eukaryotes with 7 major differences. The control of gene expression in eukaryotes is completely different from the gene expression in prokaryotes. The pathways that produce gene is more complex in eucaryotes than the pathway in prokaryotes. This makes little confusion in the understanding of gene expression difference between regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Difference between regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes : gene expression prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

  • Gene regulation in prokaryotes suggests a simpler process. As prokaryotic organisms are single-celled with a lack of a well-developed nucleus; their DNA floats freely in the cytoplasm of the cell. Therefore, transcription and translation occur simultaneously in the cytoplasm, and the regulation of a gene occurs at the transcriptional level because when more protein is required more transcription occurs, and when it requires less there is less occurrence of transcription.
  • While in Eukaryotes this process is more complex. In eukaryotes, the regulation during transcription and RNA processing takes place in the nucleus and translation takes place in the cytoplasm.
  • Prokaryotic genes are likely to be regulated together in groups whereas each eukaryotic gene is regulated separately.
  • In eukaryotes, three types of RNA polymerase are present(i.e. RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II & RNA polymerase III) while prokaryotes utilize one RNA polymerase for all transcription of types of RNA.
  • The initiation of transcription is simpler in prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, it involves many transcription factors and RNA polymerase to form the transcription preinitiation complex. More steps are involved in mRNA processing like capping, splicing, poly-A tail addition.
  • Another difference is eukaryotes express one gene at a time, they don’t express their genes all at once while prokaryotes express all the genes simultaneously.
  • Splicing of introns is involved in eukaryotic gene regulation but in prokaryotes, this process is absent as they don’t contain introns.

Gene expression prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

1. Gene regulation in prokaryotes suggests a simpler process. As prokaryotic organisms are single-celled with a lack of a well-developed nucleus; their DNA floats freely in the cytoplasm of the cell. Therefore, transcription and translation occur simultaneously in the cytoplasm, and the regulation of a gene occurs at the transcriptional level because when more protein is required more transcription occurs, and when it requires less there is less occurrence of transcription.
2. While in Eukaryotes this process is more complex. In eukaryotes, the regulation during transcription and RNA processing takes place in the nucleus and translation takes place in the cytoplasm.
3. Prokaryotic genes are likely to be regulated together in groups whereas each eukaryotic gene is regulated separately.
4. In eukaryotes, three types of RNA polymerase are present(i.e. RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II & RNA polymerase III) while prokaryotes utilize one RNA polymerase for all transcription of types of RNA.
5. The initiation of transcription is simpler in prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, it involves many transcription factors and RNA polymerase to form the transcription preinitiation complex.
6. More steps are involved in mRNA processing like capping, splicing, poly-A tail addition.
7/Another difference is eukaryotes express one gene at a time, they don’t express their genes all at once while prokaryotes express all the genes simultaneously.
8. Splicing of introns is involved in eukaryotic gene regulation but in prokaryotes, this process is absent as they don’t contain introns.

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